60 Jahre Lotto

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60 Jahre Lotto

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Depicting animals or humans is prohibited in the Islamic tradition, which does not distinguish between religious and profane life.

The borders of Anatolian rugs frequently contain ornaments which were derived from Islamic calligraphy. Usually, these "kufic" borders consist of lam-alif- or alif-lam sequences in an interwoven pattern.

The main fields of Anatolian rugs are frequently filled with redundant, interwoven patterns in "infinite repeat". Thus, the rug represents a section of an infinite pattern, which is imagined as continuing beyond its borders and into the infinite.

A specific Islamic pattern is the mihrab pattern which defines the Prayer rug. A prayer rug is characterized by a niche at one end, representing the mihrab in every mosque, a directional point to direct the worshipper towards Mecca.

The mihrab pattern in Turkish carpets is often modified and may consist of a single, double, or vertically or horizontally multiplied niche.

Thus the niche pattern can range from a concrete, architectural to a more ornamental understanding of the design. Prayer rugs are often woven "upside down", as becomes apparent when the direction of the pile is felt by touching the carpet.

This has both technical the weaver can focus on the more complicated niche design first , and practical reasons the pile inclines in the direction of the worshipper's prostration.

Large, geometric shapes are considered to be of Caucasian or Turkmen origin. The Caucasian tradition may have been integrated either by migrating Turkish tribes, or by contact with Turkmen people already living in Anatolia.

A central medallion consisting of large, concentrically reduced rhomboid patterns with latch-hook ornaments is associated with the Yörük nomads of Anatolia.

The name Yürük is usually given to nomads whose way of life has changed least from its central Asian origin. In Anatolia, several ethnic minorities have maintained separate traditions, e.

Whilst Greeks and Armenians were involved in carpet weaving and trading in the past, no design motifs have been clearly associated with their distinct, Christian culture.

Kurdish rug design differs from Anatolian. Kurdish rugs are more often discussed together with Persian carpets. Carpets and rugs were simultaneously produced by and for the four different social levels of court, town, rural village, and tribe.

Representative "court" rugs were woven by special workshops, often founded and protected by the sovereign, with the intention to represent power and status.

As such, representative carpets have developed a specific design tradition influenced by the courts of the surrounding empires.

Their elaborate design required a division of work between an artist who created a design plan termed "cartoon" on paper, and a weaver who was given the plan for execution on the loom.

Thus, artist and weaver were separated. Carpets were woven in town manufactures by organized manufactories.

Usually, town manufactures have a larger range of patterns and ornaments and more artistically developed designs which can be executed by the weavers, the palette of colours is rich, and the weaving technique may be finer due to their access to high-quality wool, and the employment of specialized weavers.

Larger formats can be produced on the larger, stationary looms. Carpets are woven from cartoons, using material provided by the manufacturer.

The town manufactories may accept commissions even from foreign countries, and produce carpets for export.

Rugs produced in villages are often produced in individual homes, but at least partly commissioned and supervised by guilds or manufacturers.

Home production may not require full-time labour, but could be performed when time allows, besides other household tasks.

Village carpets as essential household items were part of a tradition that was at times influenced by, but essentially distinct from the invented designs of the workshop production.

Frequently, mosques had acquired rural carpets as charitable gifts , which provided material for studies. Patterns and ornaments from court manufactory rugs were reproduced by smaller town or village workshops.

This process is well documented for Ottoman prayer rugs. As a result, the prototype may be modified to an extent as to be barely recognizable.

Initially misunderstood as the "degeneration" of a design, the process of stylization is now regarded as a genuine creative process within a distinct design tradition.

With the end of the traditional nomadic lifestyle in Anatolia, and the consequent loss of specific traditions, it has become difficult to identify a genuine "nomadic rug".

Social or ethnic groups known for their nomadic lifestyle like the Yürük or Kurds in contemporary Turkey have in large parts acquired sedentary lifestyles.

Some aspects of the tradition, like the use of specific materials, dyes, weaving or finishing techniques or designs may have been preserved, which can be identified as specifically nomadic or tribal.

Criteria for a nomadic production include: [68]. Within the genre of carpet weaving, the most authentic village and nomadic products were those woven to serve the needs of the community, which were not intended for export or trade other than local.

This includes specialized bags and bolster covers yastik in Anatolia, which show designs adapted from the earliest weaving traditions.

Anatolia can be divided into three major areas of rug production, centered around local towns and marketplaces, which often lend their names to the rugs produced in the surrounding area.

Western, Central, and Eastern Anatolia have distinct weaving traditions. However, commercially produced rugs are often woven irrespective of local design traditions.

Preferential use of different materials and dyes, as well as characteristic designs, sometimes allow for a more specific assignment of a carpet to one of the three regions, or to a more specific weaving place.

As a group, Western Anatolian rugs often show a bright brick red and lighter reddish colours. White accents are prominent, and green and yellow are more frequently seen than in rugs from other regions of Anatolia.

The wefts are often dyed red. The selvages are reinforced over warp cords. The ends of the rug are often protected by flat weave kilims containing a small ornament woven in pile.

Central Anatolia is one of the main areas of carpet production in Turkey. Regional weaving centers with distinct designs and traditions are:.

The town of Konya is the old capital of the Seljuq Empire. Carpets from the Konya manufacture often show an elaborate prayer rug design, with a monochrome bright madder red field.

Carpets from Konya-Derbent often have two floral medallions woven into the field below the mihrab. Also typical is a broad ornamental main border with detailed, filigree patterns flanked by two secondary borders with meandering vines and flowers.

Konya-Ladik rugs often show prayer rug designs. Their fields are mostly in bright madder red, with stepped mihrab designs.

Opposite, and sometimes above, the prayer niche are smaller gables. The gables are often arranged in groups of three, each gable decorated with a stylized, geometric tulip ornament.

The tulips are frequently shown upside down at the lower end of the prayer niche. The spandrels are often in golden yellow, and show water ewer ornaments.

The "Ladik sinekli" design is also specific for Ladik. On a white or cream white field, a multitude of small black ornaments is arranged, which resemble flies Turk.

Innice rugs resemble Ladik rugs in their use of tulip ornaments, the bold red field complemented by the bright green foundation of the spandrels.

Obruk rugs show the typical Konya design and colours, but their ornaments are more bold and stylized, resembling the Yürük traditions of the weavers from this village.

Obruk rugs are sometimes also sold in Kayseri. Kayseri rugs are distinguished by their fine weaving which characterizes the manufactory production, which is prevalent in this area.

The rugs are produced mainly for export, and imitate designs from other regions. Wool, silk, and artificial silk are used.

Ürgüp, Avanos and İncesu are Cappadocian towns. Carpets from Avanos, often in prayer rug design, are distinguished by their dense weaving.

Typically, an elaborate pendant representing either a Mosque lamp or a triangular protective amulet " mosca " hanging from the prayer niche adorns the field.

The prayer niches are often stepped, or drawn in at its sides in the classical "head-and-shoulders" shape. The field is often in bright red, and surrounded by golden yellow spandrels and borders.

The fine weaving allows for elaborate ornamental patterns, which make the Avanos carpet easy to identify amongst other rugs.

Ürgüp carpets are distinguished by their colours. Brown-gold is dominant, bright orange and yellow are often seen.

A medallion within a medallion frequently is set into the field, which is of a typical "Ürgüp red" colour, adorned with floral motifs. Palmettes fill the corner medallions and the main borders.

The outermost secondary border often has reciprocal crenellations. Prayer and medallion designs are woven, as well as garden " mazarlik ", or "graveyard" designs.

Pale turquois blue, pale green and rose colours are prevalent. Rugs from Ortaköy show a hexagonal central ornament, often including a cruciform pattern.

The borders show stylized carnations arranged in a row of square compartments. Mucur carpets often show a stepped "prayer niche within a prayer niche" design, with contrasting bright madder red and light indigo colours separated by yellow outlines.

The borders are composed of rows of squares filled with geometric diamond or rhomboid patterns. If a prayer rug design is used, the niche and spandrels are typically tall and narrow.

Likewise, the central field is not substantially larger than the main border. Fertek rugs are distinguished by their simple, floral ornaments.

The main field is often not separated from the main border, as usual, by a smaller secondary border. The outermost secondary border often has reciprocal crenellation patterns.

The colour composition often contains soft reds, dark olive greens, and blue. The foundation of their main border is often dyed in corrosive brown, which caused deterioration of the carpet pile in these areas, and produces a relief effect.

Yahali is a regional center and market place for its surroundings. Carpets from this region often have a hexagonal central medallion, with double-hooked ornaments in the fields and carnations in the main border.

The design of some Karapinar rugs shows similarities, but is not related, to Turkmen door rugs "ensi" , as three columns crowned by double hooks " kotchak " frequently form the prayer niche.

Opposed "double hook" ornaments fill the columns both in Karapinar and Karaman rugs. Another type of design often seen in Karapinar runners is composed of geometric hexagonal primary motifs arranged on top of each other, in subdued red, yellow, green, and white.

State-owned manufactories, some of them organized as weaving schools, produce rugs in Sivas. The design imitates carpets from other regions, especially Persian designs.

Traditional Sivas carpets were distinguished by their dense and short, velvet-like pile in elaborate designs which are characteristic for a "town manufactory".

The main border is typically composed of rows of three carnations, held together by a stem. Each stripe is filled with elaborate floral arabesques.

The pile is clipped very short so that the detailed patterns can be clearly seen. We are currently unable to recognize specific local designs in east Anatolian carpets.

Until the Armenian Genocide in , East Anatolia had a large Armenian population, and sometimes carpets are identified as of Armenian production by their inscriptions.

Information is also lacking with regard to the Kurdish and Turkish carpet production. Research in the s has come to the conclusion that the tradition of weaving has almost vanished, and more specific information may be lost.

Other East Anatolian rugs are usually not attributed to a specific location, but are classified according to their tribal provenience. As the Kurdish and Yürük tribes were living as nomads for most of their history, they tended to weave traditional tribal, rather than any local, design.

If a rug with an overall Yürük design can be attributed to a specific region as Yürüks also live in other regions of Anatolia , the name "Yürük" sometimes precedes the regional name.

Type I small-pattern Holbein carpet with "kufic" main border and "infinite repeat" field pattern , Anatolia , 16th century.

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque multiple-niche prayer rug saph. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Turkish carpet. Term commonly used to denote rugs woven in Anatolia.

This article is about pile-woven Anatolian rugs. For flat-woven rugs, see Kilim. Mythology and folklore. Mythology folklore.

Music and performing arts. Radio Television Cinema. World Heritage Sites. Flag Coat of arms. See also: Early Anatolian Animal carpets.

Wool, cm x cm, Swedish History Museum , Stockholm. Main article: Transylvanian rugs. Left image : Pile rug , circa ; Southwestern Anatolia, with bright but harmonic natural dyes Right image : Tribal Kurdish Cuval, ca.

Further information: Bergama carpet , Hereke carpet , Milas carpet , and Ushak carpet. Further information: Konya carpets.

Ushak carpet with a "cloud band" border and field , Mecidi period design. Edirne Selimiye Mosque interior with multiple-niche prayer rug saph.

Turkey portal. Retrieved on Munich: Verlag Kunst und Antiquitäten. Seven Hundred Years of Oriental Carpets. Translated by Beattie, May H.

Berkeley, California: University of California Press. Vorderasiatische Knüpfteppiche aus alter Zeit 5th ed. Altorientalische Teppiche Reprint ed.

Retrieved 29 June Archived from the original on Retrieved Wright, Thomas ed. Travels of Marco Polo, the Venetian: the translation of Marsden revised.

A History of Oriental Carpets before 1 ed. Vienna: The I. State and Court Print. The Art Bulletin. Carpet fragments: The Marby rug and some fragments of carpets found in Egypt Nationalmuseums skriftserie reprint ed.

Swedish National Museum. Siebenhundert Jahre Orientteppich 1st ed. Herford: Bussesche Verlagshandlung. Retrieved 10 July El hilo se tensa hacia abajo y se corta con un cuchillo.

Los lados o bordes suelen estar cubiertos de lana. Los bordes consisten en hasta diez hilos de urdimbre. Los pelos de la alfombra se cortan con cuchillos especiales para obtener una superficie igual.

En algunas alfombras, se obtiene un efecto de relieve al cortarla de manera desigual. Finalmente, la alfombra se lava antes de usarse, y pasar al mercado.

Esto se puede usar para determinar donde el tejedor ha comenzado a anudar. Una alfombra especial para camas nombrada yatak puede alcanzar un espesor de pelo de 20 a 25 mm.

Hay registros documentales de alfombras usadas por los antiguos griegos. Anatolia fue gobernada por el Imperio romano desde el a.

La mencionada alfombra se caracteriza por un nicho en un extremo, que representa el mihrab de cada mezquita, un punto direccional para dirigir al devoto hacia la Meca.

Las alfombras kurdas se discuten con mayor frecuencia junto con las alfombras persas. Como resultado, el prototipo pudo modificarse hasta un punto apenas reconocible.

Anatolia occidental, central y oriental tienen diferentes tradiciones de tejido. Los contrastes agudos consiguen con lana blanca. Los puntos blancos son prominentes, y los verdes y amarillos se ven con mayor frecuencia que en las alfombras de otras regiones de Anatolia.

Los bordes se refuerzan en hilos de urdimbre. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Lana, cm x cm, Museo de historia de Suecia, Estocolmo.

Imagen derecha :detalle de la obra de Hans Holbein el Joven : Los embajadores , Libro V, p. Libro VI, p. Liverpool University Press. Royal Academy of Arts, ed.

Archivado desde el original el 18 de febrero de Consultado el 12 de diciembre de Teppiche der Bauern und Nomaden in Anatolien.

Carpets of the Peasants and Nomads in Anatolia. Seven Hundred Years of Oriental Carpets. Beattie and Hildegard Herzog.

Vorderasiatische Knüpfteppiche aus alter Zeit. Oriental Rugs Today. Consultado el 29 de junio de Wright, Thomas, ed. Travels of Marco Polo, the Venetian: the translation of Marsden revised.

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By the end of the eighteenth century, the "turkish baroque" or " mecidi " style developed out of French baroque designs. Radio Television Cinema. Archivado desde el original el 18 de febrero de Turkish Culture. Mit der Gleichschaltung und dem erzwungenen Austritt der deutschen Logen aus dem internationalen Orden gingen der. At the same time, western European residences were more sparely equipped with Oriental carpets. Each stripe is filled with elaborate floral arabesques. Link carpets termed "Transsylvanian carpets" by convenience today are of Ottoman origin, and were woven in Anatolia. The Art Bulletin. Ab 18 Jahren! Sa, Die Zusatzzahl wurde erst ein Jahr später im Juni eingeführt. Am Leipzig Trabrennbahn werden beispielsweise agree Beste Spielothek in Haigerloh finden agree Zahlen 7, 13, 19, 15, 31 und 37 getippt. Sie wurden dem Publikum vor Ort in einer Kiste präsentiert und stichprobenartig geöffnet. Here starten. Glücksspiel sollte einfacher sein, kein Spezialwissen voraussetzen. Heute sind Lottokugeln schlicht mit Zahlen bedruckte Tischtennisbälle. Coinschatulle - Rückseite: Kompassrose - Trackbar auf Geocaching. Die Zahlen wurden für ungültig erklärt, die Ziehung wiederholt. Die Ziehungen der Zahlen für Lotto finden mittwochs um und samstags um statt. An diesem Freitag wird das Konzept "6 aus 49" bereits 60 Jahre alt. Mythology and folklore. Since the Www.Lovebrands.Com Code Turks occupied the former Persian capital of Tabriz in the first half of the sixteenth century, they would have knowledge of, and access to Persian medallion carpets. Die standesamtliche. Traditional Sivas carpets were distinguished Kartenspiel Freecell their dense and short, velvet-like pile in elaborate designs which are characteristic for a "town manufactory". Although geometric in design, Flower Power pattern has similarities to birds. En Europalas alfombras turcas se representaban con frecuencia en pinturas renacentistasa menudo en un contexto de dignidad, prestigio y lujo. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34 12 : See also: Early Anatolian Animal carpets. Type I small-pattern Holbein carpet with "kufic" main border and "infinite repeat" field patternAnatolia16th century.

It seems likely that carpets were not exported in large scale during this time. By the end of the eighteenth century, the "turkish baroque" or " mecidi " style developed out of French baroque designs.

Carpets were woven after the patterns of French Savonnerie and Aubusson tapestry. A weaving workshop was established in in Hereke , a coastal town 60 kilometers from Istanbul on the bay of Izmit.

The Hereke Imperial Factory initially included looms producing cotton fabric. Silk brocades and velvets for drapes and upholstery were manufactured at a workshop known as the " kamhane ".

In the cotton looms were moved to a factory in Bakirköy, west of Istanbul, and jacquard looms were installed in Hereke. In a fire in the factory caused extensive damage, and it was not reopened until Carpet production began in Hereke in and expert carpet weavers were brought in from the carpet weaving centers of Sivas , Manisa and Ladik.

The carpets were all hand woven, and in the early years they were either made for the Ottoman palaces or as gifts for visiting statesmen.

Later, they were also woven for export. Hereke carpets are known primarily for their fine weave. Silk thread or fine wool yarn and occasionally gold, silver and cotton thread are used in their production.

Wool carpets produced for the palace had 60—65 knots per square centimeter, while silk carpets had 80— knots.

The typical "palace carpet" features intricate floral designs, including the tulip, daisy, carnation, crocus, rose, lilac, and hyacinth.

It often has quarter medallions in the corners. The medallion designs of earlier Ushak carpets was widely used at the Hereke factory.

These medallions are curved on the horizontal axis and taper to points on the vertical axis. Hereke prayer rugs feature patterns of geometric motifs, tendrils and lamps as background designs within the representation of a mihrab prayer niche.

Once referring solely to carpets woven at Hereke, the term "Hereke carpet" now refers to any high quality carpet woven using similar techniques.

Hereke carpets remain among the finest and most valuable examples of woven carpets in the world. The modern history of carpets and rugs began in the nineteenth century when increasing demand for handmade carpets arose on the international market.

However, the traditional, hand-woven, naturally dyed Turkish carpet is a very labour-intense product, as each step in its manufacture requires considerable time, from the preparation, spinning, dyeing of the wool to setting up the loom, knotting each knot by hand, and finishing the carpet before it goes to market.

In an attempt to save on resources and cost, and maximise on profit in a competitive market environment, synthetic dyes , non-traditional weaving tools like the power loom , and standardized designs were introduced.

This led to a rapid breakdown of the tradition, resulting in the degeneration of an art which had been cultivated for centuries. The process was recognized by art historians as early as in In the late twentieth century, the loss of cultural heritage was recognized, and efforts started to revive the tradition.

Initiatives were started aiming at re-establishing the ancient tradition of carpet weaving from handspun, naturally dyed wool. In traditional households, women and girls take up carpet and kilim weaving as a hobby as well as a means of earning money.

Women learn their weaving skills at an early age, taking months or even years to complete the pile rugs and flat woven kilims that were created for their use in daily life.

As is true in most weaving cultures, traditionally it is women and girls who are both artisan and weaver. Makers of handmade rugs use only natural fibres.

The most common materials used for the pile are wool, silk and cotton. Nomadic and village weavers sometimes also use goat- and camel-hair.

Traditionally, spinning is done by hand. Several strands of yarn are then plied together so that the resulting yarn is strong enough to be used for weaving.

Sheep's wool is the most frequently used pile material in a Turkish rug because it is soft, durable, easy to work with and not too expensive.

It is less susceptible to dirt than cotton, does not react electrostatically, and insulates against both heat and cold.

This combination of characteristics is not found in other natural fibers. Wool comes from the coats of sheep.

Natural wool comes in colors of white, brown, fawn, yellow and gray, which are sometimes used directly without going through a dyeing process.

Sheep's wool also takes dyes well. Traditionally, wool used for Turkish carpets is spun by hand. Before the yarn can be used for weaving, several strands have to be twisted together for additional strength.

Cotton is used primarily in the foundation, the warps and wefts of rugs. Cotton is stronger than wool, and, when used for the foundation, makes a carpet lie flat on the ground, as it is not as easily distorted as woolen strings.

Some weavers, such as Turkomans, also use cotton for weaving small white details into the rug in order to create contrast.

Wool-on-wool wool pile on wool warp and weft : This is the most traditional type of Anatolian rug. Wool-on-wool carpet weaving dates back further and utilizes more traditional design-motifs than its counterparts.

Because wool cannot be spun extra finely, the knot count is often not as high as seen in a "wool-on-cotton" or "silk-on-silk" rug.

Wool-on-wool carpets are more frequently attributed to tribal or nomadic production. Wool-on- cotton wool pile on cotton warp and weft : This particular combination facilitates a more intricate design-pattern than a "wool-on-wool carpet", as cotton can be finely spun which allows for a higher knot-count.

A "wool-on-cotton" rug is often indicative of a town weaver. Due to their higher pile density, wool-on-cotton carpets are heavier than wool-on-wool rugs.

Silk -on-silk silk pile on silk warp and weft : This is the most intricate type of carpet, featuring a very fine weave.

Traditional dyes used for Anatolian carpets are obtained from plants, insects and minerals. In , the English chemist William Henry Perkin invented the first aniline dye, mauveine.

A variety of other synthetic dyes were invented thereafter. Cheap, readily prepared and easy to use as they were compared to natural dyes, their use is documented in Ushak carpets already by the mid s.

The tradition of natural dyeing was recently revived, based on chemical analyses of natural dyes from antique wool samples, and experimental re-creation of dyeing recipes and processes, in the early s.

The dyeing process involves the preparation of the yarn in order to make it susceptible for the proper dyes by immersion in a mordant , immersing the yarn in the dyeing solution, and leaving it to dry exposed to air and sunlight.

Some colours, especially dark brown, require iron mordants, which can damage or fade the fabric. This often results in faster pile wear in areas dyed in dark brown colours, and may create a relief effect in antique Turkish carpets.

With modern synthetic dyes , nearly every colour and shade can be obtained so that it is nearly impossible to identify, in a finished carpet, whether natural or artificial dyes were used.

Modern carpets can be woven with carefully selected synthetic colours, and provide artistic and utilitarian value.

The Anatolian rug is distinct from carpets of other provenience in that it makes more pronounced use of primary colours. Western Anatolian carpets prefer red and blue colours, whereas Central Anatolian use more red and yellow, with sharp contrasts set in white.

A variety of tools are needed in the construction of a handmade rug. A loom , a horizontal or upright framework, is needed to mount the vertical warps into which the pile nodes are knotted, and one or more shoots of horizontal wefts are woven "shot" in after each row of knots in order to further stabilize the fabric.

Wefts can be either undyed or dyed, mostly in red and blue. The pile knots are usually knotted by hand. Most rugs from Anatolia utilize the symmetrical Turkish double knot.

Each knot is made on two warps. With this form of knotting, each end of the pile thread is twisted around two warp threads at regular intervals, so that both ends of the knot come up between two strands on one side of the carpet.

The thread is then pulled downwards and cut with a knife. After a row of knots has been inserted, one or two, sometimes more, rows of wefts are woven in, and the fabric is compacted by beating with a heavy comb.

Once the carpet is finished, it is cut from the loom. The sides or selvages are usually overcast in wool.

The selvages consist of up to ten warp threads. Especially village and nomadic rugs have flat-woven kilim ends, sometimes including pile-woven tribal signs or village crests.

The pile of the carpet is shorn with special knives in order to obtain an equal surface. In some carpets, a relief effect is obtained by clipping the pile unevenly.

Finally, the carpet is washed before it is used, or goes to the market. The upright pile of Turkish rugs usually falls in one direction, as knots are always pulled down before the string of pile yarn is cut off and work resumes on the next knot, piling row after row of knots on top of each other.

When touching a carpet, this creates a feeling similar to stroking an animal's fur. This can be used to determine where the weaver has started knotting the pile.

Anatolian rug design integrates different strands of traditions. Specific elements are closely related to the history of Turkic peoples and their interaction with surrounding cultures, in their central Asian origin as well as during their migration, and in Anatolia itself.

The most important cultural influences came from the Chinese culture, and from Islam. Carpets from the Bergama and Konya areas are considered as most closely related to earlier Anatolian rugs, and their significance in the history of the art is now better understood.

The early history of the Turkic peoples in Central Asia is closely related to China. Contacts between Turks and China are documented since the early Han dynasty.

In his essay on centralized designs, Thompson [55] relates the central medallion pattern, frequently found in Anatolian rugs to the "lotus pedestal" and "cloud collar yun chien " motifs, used in the art of Buddhist Asia , which he dated back to Yuan dynasty China.

Recently, Brüggemann further elaborated on the relationship between Chinese and Turkic motifs like the "cloud band" ornament, the origin of which he relates to the Han dynasty.

There are documentary records of carpets being used by the ancient Greeks. Pliny the Elder wrote nat.

VIII, 48 that carpets "polymita" were invented in Alexandria. It is unknown whether these were flatweaves or pile weaves, as no detailed technical information can be gained from the texts.

Athenaeus of Naucratis describes luxurious carpets in his Deipnosophists , written about AD. And there were handsomely embroidered rugs very beautifully elaborated on them.

A carpet "with the pattern on both sides" could either be a flat-woven, or pile-woven carpet. Whether "purple" refers to the colour of the fabric or to the dyestuff either Tyrian purple or madder red could have been used remains unknown.

The town of Sardis lies in Western Anatolia, thus, this may be the earliest reference to carpet production in the region of Asia minor. Artistically, both empires have developed similar styles and decorative vocabulary, as exemplified by mosaics and architecture of Roman Antioch.

When Turkic migrants moved from Central Asia to Anatolia , they were migrating mainly through lands which had already adopted Islam.

Depicting animals or humans is prohibited in the Islamic tradition, which does not distinguish between religious and profane life.

The borders of Anatolian rugs frequently contain ornaments which were derived from Islamic calligraphy. Usually, these "kufic" borders consist of lam-alif- or alif-lam sequences in an interwoven pattern.

The main fields of Anatolian rugs are frequently filled with redundant, interwoven patterns in "infinite repeat". Thus, the rug represents a section of an infinite pattern, which is imagined as continuing beyond its borders and into the infinite.

A specific Islamic pattern is the mihrab pattern which defines the Prayer rug. A prayer rug is characterized by a niche at one end, representing the mihrab in every mosque, a directional point to direct the worshipper towards Mecca.

The mihrab pattern in Turkish carpets is often modified and may consist of a single, double, or vertically or horizontally multiplied niche.

Thus the niche pattern can range from a concrete, architectural to a more ornamental understanding of the design. Prayer rugs are often woven "upside down", as becomes apparent when the direction of the pile is felt by touching the carpet.

This has both technical the weaver can focus on the more complicated niche design first , and practical reasons the pile inclines in the direction of the worshipper's prostration.

Large, geometric shapes are considered to be of Caucasian or Turkmen origin. The Caucasian tradition may have been integrated either by migrating Turkish tribes, or by contact with Turkmen people already living in Anatolia.

A central medallion consisting of large, concentrically reduced rhomboid patterns with latch-hook ornaments is associated with the Yörük nomads of Anatolia.

The name Yürük is usually given to nomads whose way of life has changed least from its central Asian origin. In Anatolia, several ethnic minorities have maintained separate traditions, e.

Whilst Greeks and Armenians were involved in carpet weaving and trading in the past, no design motifs have been clearly associated with their distinct, Christian culture.

Kurdish rug design differs from Anatolian. Kurdish rugs are more often discussed together with Persian carpets. Carpets and rugs were simultaneously produced by and for the four different social levels of court, town, rural village, and tribe.

Representative "court" rugs were woven by special workshops, often founded and protected by the sovereign, with the intention to represent power and status.

As such, representative carpets have developed a specific design tradition influenced by the courts of the surrounding empires.

Their elaborate design required a division of work between an artist who created a design plan termed "cartoon" on paper, and a weaver who was given the plan for execution on the loom.

Thus, artist and weaver were separated. Carpets were woven in town manufactures by organized manufactories. Usually, town manufactures have a larger range of patterns and ornaments and more artistically developed designs which can be executed by the weavers, the palette of colours is rich, and the weaving technique may be finer due to their access to high-quality wool, and the employment of specialized weavers.

Larger formats can be produced on the larger, stationary looms. Carpets are woven from cartoons, using material provided by the manufacturer.

The town manufactories may accept commissions even from foreign countries, and produce carpets for export.

Rugs produced in villages are often produced in individual homes, but at least partly commissioned and supervised by guilds or manufacturers.

Home production may not require full-time labour, but could be performed when time allows, besides other household tasks. Village carpets as essential household items were part of a tradition that was at times influenced by, but essentially distinct from the invented designs of the workshop production.

Frequently, mosques had acquired rural carpets as charitable gifts , which provided material for studies. Patterns and ornaments from court manufactory rugs were reproduced by smaller town or village workshops.

This process is well documented for Ottoman prayer rugs. As a result, the prototype may be modified to an extent as to be barely recognizable.

Initially misunderstood as the "degeneration" of a design, the process of stylization is now regarded as a genuine creative process within a distinct design tradition.

With the end of the traditional nomadic lifestyle in Anatolia, and the consequent loss of specific traditions, it has become difficult to identify a genuine "nomadic rug".

Social or ethnic groups known for their nomadic lifestyle like the Yürük or Kurds in contemporary Turkey have in large parts acquired sedentary lifestyles.

Some aspects of the tradition, like the use of specific materials, dyes, weaving or finishing techniques or designs may have been preserved, which can be identified as specifically nomadic or tribal.

Criteria for a nomadic production include: [68]. Within the genre of carpet weaving, the most authentic village and nomadic products were those woven to serve the needs of the community, which were not intended for export or trade other than local.

This includes specialized bags and bolster covers yastik in Anatolia, which show designs adapted from the earliest weaving traditions. Anatolia can be divided into three major areas of rug production, centered around local towns and marketplaces, which often lend their names to the rugs produced in the surrounding area.

Western, Central, and Eastern Anatolia have distinct weaving traditions. However, commercially produced rugs are often woven irrespective of local design traditions.

Preferential use of different materials and dyes, as well as characteristic designs, sometimes allow for a more specific assignment of a carpet to one of the three regions, or to a more specific weaving place.

As a group, Western Anatolian rugs often show a bright brick red and lighter reddish colours. White accents are prominent, and green and yellow are more frequently seen than in rugs from other regions of Anatolia.

The wefts are often dyed red. The selvages are reinforced over warp cords. The ends of the rug are often protected by flat weave kilims containing a small ornament woven in pile.

Central Anatolia is one of the main areas of carpet production in Turkey. Regional weaving centers with distinct designs and traditions are:.

The town of Konya is the old capital of the Seljuq Empire. Carpets from the Konya manufacture often show an elaborate prayer rug design, with a monochrome bright madder red field.

Carpets from Konya-Derbent often have two floral medallions woven into the field below the mihrab. Also typical is a broad ornamental main border with detailed, filigree patterns flanked by two secondary borders with meandering vines and flowers.

Konya-Ladik rugs often show prayer rug designs. Their fields are mostly in bright madder red, with stepped mihrab designs.

Opposite, and sometimes above, the prayer niche are smaller gables. The gables are often arranged in groups of three, each gable decorated with a stylized, geometric tulip ornament.

The tulips are frequently shown upside down at the lower end of the prayer niche. The spandrels are often in golden yellow, and show water ewer ornaments.

The "Ladik sinekli" design is also specific for Ladik. On a white or cream white field, a multitude of small black ornaments is arranged, which resemble flies Turk.

Innice rugs resemble Ladik rugs in their use of tulip ornaments, the bold red field complemented by the bright green foundation of the spandrels.

Obruk rugs show the typical Konya design and colours, but their ornaments are more bold and stylized, resembling the Yürük traditions of the weavers from this village.

Obruk rugs are sometimes also sold in Kayseri. Kayseri rugs are distinguished by their fine weaving which characterizes the manufactory production, which is prevalent in this area.

The rugs are produced mainly for export, and imitate designs from other regions. Wool, silk, and artificial silk are used.

Ürgüp, Avanos and İncesu are Cappadocian towns. Carpets from Avanos, often in prayer rug design, are distinguished by their dense weaving.

Typically, an elaborate pendant representing either a Mosque lamp or a triangular protective amulet " mosca " hanging from the prayer niche adorns the field.

The prayer niches are often stepped, or drawn in at its sides in the classical "head-and-shoulders" shape. The field is often in bright red, and surrounded by golden yellow spandrels and borders.

The fine weaving allows for elaborate ornamental patterns, which make the Avanos carpet easy to identify amongst other rugs.

Ürgüp carpets are distinguished by their colours. Brown-gold is dominant, bright orange and yellow are often seen. A medallion within a medallion frequently is set into the field, which is of a typical "Ürgüp red" colour, adorned with floral motifs.

Palmettes fill the corner medallions and the main borders. The outermost secondary border often has reciprocal crenellations. Prayer and medallion designs are woven, as well as garden " mazarlik ", or "graveyard" designs.

Pale turquois blue, pale green and rose colours are prevalent. Rugs from Ortaköy show a hexagonal central ornament, often including a cruciform pattern.

The borders show stylized carnations arranged in a row of square compartments. Mucur carpets often show a stepped "prayer niche within a prayer niche" design, with contrasting bright madder red and light indigo colours separated by yellow outlines.

The borders are composed of rows of squares filled with geometric diamond or rhomboid patterns. If a prayer rug design is used, the niche and spandrels are typically tall and narrow.

Likewise, the central field is not substantially larger than the main border. Fertek rugs are distinguished by their simple, floral ornaments.

The main field is often not separated from the main border, as usual, by a smaller secondary border.

The outermost secondary border often has reciprocal crenellation patterns. The colour composition often contains soft reds, dark olive greens, and blue.

The foundation of their main border is often dyed in corrosive brown, which caused deterioration of the carpet pile in these areas, and produces a relief effect.

Yahali is a regional center and market place for its surroundings. Carpets from this region often have a hexagonal central medallion, with double-hooked ornaments in the fields and carnations in the main border.

The design of some Karapinar rugs shows similarities, but is not related, to Turkmen door rugs "ensi" , as three columns crowned by double hooks " kotchak " frequently form the prayer niche.

Opposed "double hook" ornaments fill the columns both in Karapinar and Karaman rugs. Another type of design often seen in Karapinar runners is composed of geometric hexagonal primary motifs arranged on top of each other, in subdued red, yellow, green, and white.

State-owned manufactories, some of them organized as weaving schools, produce rugs in Sivas. The design imitates carpets from other regions, especially Persian designs.

Traditional Sivas carpets were distinguished by their dense and short, velvet-like pile in elaborate designs which are characteristic for a "town manufactory".

The main border is typically composed of rows of three carnations, held together by a stem. Each stripe is filled with elaborate floral arabesques.

The pile is clipped very short so that the detailed patterns can be clearly seen. We are currently unable to recognize specific local designs in east Anatolian carpets.

Until the Armenian Genocide in , East Anatolia had a large Armenian population, and sometimes carpets are identified as of Armenian production by their inscriptions.

Information is also lacking with regard to the Kurdish and Turkish carpet production. Research in the s has come to the conclusion that the tradition of weaving has almost vanished, and more specific information may be lost.

Other East Anatolian rugs are usually not attributed to a specific location, but are classified according to their tribal provenience. As the Kurdish and Yürük tribes were living as nomads for most of their history, they tended to weave traditional tribal, rather than any local, design.

If a rug with an overall Yürük design can be attributed to a specific region as Yürüks also live in other regions of Anatolia , the name "Yürük" sometimes precedes the regional name.

Type I small-pattern Holbein carpet with "kufic" main border and "infinite repeat" field pattern , Anatolia , 16th century.

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque multiple-niche prayer rug saph. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Turkish carpet.

Term commonly used to denote rugs woven in Anatolia. This article is about pile-woven Anatolian rugs.

For flat-woven rugs, see Kilim. Mythology and folklore. Mythology folklore. Music and performing arts. Radio Television Cinema. World Heritage Sites.

Flag Coat of arms. See also: Early Anatolian Animal carpets. Wool, cm x cm, Swedish History Museum , Stockholm. Main article: Transylvanian rugs.

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